Over the past few months alone, a viral disease (Lumpy Skin Disease) has been spreading in cattle across various states in India. A comprehensive review meeting was held by the Union Minister for Animal Husbandry regarding the widespread lumpy skin disease and to understand the situation. Various Indian states have been rapidly trying to get hold of goat pox vaccination – goat pox vaccination has been demonstrated to be successful in preventing this disease and also vaccinating the domesticated animals in impacted regions. Veterinarians, nonetheless, suggested separating contaminated steers and isolating them from other cattle.
According to the experts, limiting dairy cattle development is perhaps the most significant step that should be taken to forestall the spread of the sickness. Limiting vector development, however, more troublesome is conceivable as well – using bug sprays or bug traps to kill flies and mosquitoes. Let’s read about lumpy skin diseases and why it is such a rising concern. Allow us to break down the information for you.
What is Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD)?
Similar to COVID-19, lumpy skin disease is also brought about by an infection/virus. The lumpy skin disease infection, as it is called, has a place in the genus of Capripoxvirus, from the same family as the monkeypox and smallpox virus (Poxviridae). The infection generally targets the ruminants, like cows and buffalos. One of the common symptoms of appearing lumpy skin disease is fever. The wounds and lesions usually start appearing after a week, and so does discharge from the infected animal’s nose and eyes. The infected cattle start salivating and avoid consuming food.
Lumpy skin disease is a virus that also targets the animal’s lymph nodes. The virus causes the lymph nodes to expand and appear as big and small lumps on the skin. From there, the disease got its name. The symptoms of this disease incorporate high fever, lumps or nodes all over the body, and it can also cause death. The cows suffering from lumpy skin disease may also experience severe emaciation, infertility, and miscarriage. Studies have shown that this disease is transmitted using blood-feeding insects like ticks, mosquitoes, and flies.
The very first case of lumpy skin disease was reported in Bangladesh in the year 2019, and later the spread reports came from Europe and the Middle East. However, India likewise started getting primary cases in the year 2019 from particular eastern states like Odisha and West Bengal. However, more than 7,300 cows are reported dead because of the Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) in eight states and one union territory, which has ignited immense worries. The illness started spreading in cows, as per an administration official, was first revealed in Gujarat and has now impacted over 1.85 lakh dairy cattle in a long way since the beginning of July.
About the Spread
So how does the sickness spread? It is known to be spread by bugs, explicitly bloodsuckers, like a few types of gnawing mosquitoes and flies. It additionally spreads through defiled food and water (like a normal source of drinking water or, in any event, touching grounds). Investigations have discovered that cases of this disease started increasing altogether during summer and with the beginning of the seasonal rainy season – which coincides with the pinnacle action of the disease spreading vectors (like flies and mosquitoes). Studies recommend that separated from the expanded development of animals or vectors across borders, environmental change and increased unlawful animal trade could be causing the spread of lumpy skin disease too.
Lumpy Skin Disease was believed to be endemic to the Middle East and parts of Africa, yet the illness has now surfaced in many nations across the world, including India.
According to a qualitative risk assessment report directed by the Food and Agriculture Organization in 2020, the sickness had spread to 23 nations in southeast, east, and south Asia by October 2020. The development of LSD’s geographic reach in south Asia is becoming difficult for Asian domesticated animals. Be that as it may, it isn’t comprehended to communicate with people.
In India, Lumpy Skin Disease was first announced in cows in 2019 in West Bengal. By January 2021, it had spread like fire to 15 states in the country, according to a few news reports. As indicated by one review, the infection might have spread to India from other connecting nations because of the livestock movement across borders or even because of the movement of harmful vectors across adjoining nations.
The Massive Spread of Lumpy Skin Disease in India
Throughout the past month alone, the viral sickness has been reported in more than eight states in India. These are Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Andaman, and the Nicobar Islands. Rajasthan has been most terribly hit by the most recent lumpy skin disease episode when at least 11 regions were reporting flood cases, said Union Minister for Animal Husbandry on August 7. The pastor had shown up in Jaipur with a focus group to check out the sickness-impacted regions. In Madhya Pradesh, similar cases of lumpy skin disease have been reported from domesticated animals in the Ratlam locale. The Hindustan Times reported that an excess of 2,100 instances of LSD had been accounted for from the Yamunanagar locale in Haryana.
Dairy ranchers are stressed over the effects that the illness is causing on milk creation. The New Indian Express revealed that the lumpy skin disease had caused a plunge in milk production in Gujarat by 1, 00,000 litres each day. It said that dairy associations in Kutch and Saurashtra reported a 20% decrease in day-to-day milk production. Taking into account these effects on milk creation, the infection could have serious implications for the Indian dairy industry. India, as it turns out, is the biggest maker of milk on the planet and adds to 22% of complete worldwide creation. Dairy cattle have additionally capitulated to the sickness in many states. More than 1,200 steers have died in Gujarat alone, as have over 3,000 cows in Rajasthan and over 400 in Punjab.
How is the Indian Government Tackling the Spread of Lumpy Skin Disease?
For those domesticated animals that come in contact with lumpy skin disease, there is no proper treatment. Veterinarians, nonetheless, suggested separating contaminated steers and isolating them from other cattle. Many states in India are at present doing this. In Uttarakhand, as in different states, affected cattle have been disconnected, and impacted regions have been transformed into a control zone to forestall the spread of the illness.
According to the experts, limiting dairy cattle development is perhaps the most significant step that should be taken to forestall the spread of the sickness. Limiting vector development, however, more troublesome is conceivable as well – using bug sprays or bug traps to kill flies and mosquitoes. A live weakened immunization is accessible for LSD. In any case, since the LSD infection is firmly connected with goat pox and sheep pox infections, these immunizations can be utilized for dairy cattle as a preventive measure too.
This is what many states in India are hurrying to do. Punjab has previously secured 66,000 portions of goat pox immunization which will be controlled and liberated from cost to the healthy animals. The state government has likewise offered the amount of Rs 76 lakh to all to handle the spread of lumpy skin disease. Mass immunization of cows and restriction of regional development are the two significant advances expected to forestall the further spread of the sickness. In late July, the Gujarat state government – in a general gathering led by Chief Minister Bhupendra Patel – chose to give free immunization to dairy cattle in towns inside a five km sweep of impacted regions in 15 locales where Lumpy Skin Disease has been laid out.
The lumpy skin disease infection, as it is called, has a place in the genus of Capripoxvirus, from the same family as the monkeypox and smallpox virus (Poxviridae). For those domesticated animals that come in contact with lumpy skin disease, there is no proper treatment. In case your cow is suffering from lumpy skin disease or you need any information concerning the treatment, you can connect with us via mail or call us on the number mentioned on the website.
Read Our Article: Calf Pneumonia: Reasons, Effects, and Treatment of the Disease